Neoadjuvant therapy for colon cancer, simply put, is a treatment method that gives local radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, or a combination of the two to the tumor site before surgical resection of the malignant tumor.
Therefore, there are three subdivisions of preoperative adjuvant therapy, including neoadjuvant radiotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.
1. Advantages of neoadjuvant therapy
1. Reduce tumor size and reduce surgical risks;
2. Treat micro-metastases early and determine the tumor's response to chemotherapy (helping to formulate postoperative treatment plans);
3. Local treatment can be avoided for patients with early progression;
4. When the primary tumor (the tissue or organ where the disease started) or the metastasis (the focus formed by metastasis caused by malignant lesions) is too large to be directly surgically removed, it can relatively reduce the tumor volume, thereby reducing the risk of death. The clinical staging of tumors increases the chances of surgery for patients with tumors that cannot be directly resected.
It can not only increase the rate of surgical radical cure and improve the resection rate of tumors, but also reduce the local recurrence rate of tumors and better preserve the tissue structure and function of organs;
5. Since the arteriovenous blood vessels and lymphatic vessels supplying the tumor are not affected by surgical trauma, the local concentration of chemotherapy drugs in the tumor is relatively higher, which can achieve better chemotherapy effects;
6. It can keep tumor cells in a lower proliferation state, help reduce iatrogenic spread during surgery, and reduce the possibility of distant metastasis of tumors;
7. Some clinical or subclinical micrometastases can be controlled or even eliminated after neoadjuvant treatment;
8. The difference in imaging before and after surgery and the pathological results of tumor specimens removed during surgery can help clinicians understand the sensitivity of tumors to chemotherapy drugs, and provide a strong reference for selecting reasonable postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimens, and Helps to assess patient prognosis to a certain extent;
9. Compared with patients who receive adjuvant therapy after surgery, the general physical condition of preoperative patients is generally better, so they have better tolerance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the possibility of acute toxicity is relatively lower.