Colon cancer and rectal cancer are collectively referred to as intestinal cancer, which is considered a rich cancer. The risk of the disease in urban areas is far higher than that in rural areas, and the risk of men is higher than that of women. As the condition of colon cancer worsens, various symptoms gradually become apparent, including body weight loss, lumps in the abdomen, indigestion, etc., but they are easily ignored by people.
What are the causes of colon cancer?1. Heredity
Colon cancer has a hereditary tendency. If your immediate family members, such as brothers, sisters, children, and parents have colon cancer, you are a high-risk group.
2. Unreasonable diet structure
High-fat, high-protein and high-calorie diets, especially eating too much red meat and processed meat, can increase the burden on the digestive tract, causing continued damage to the digestive tract mucosa, and increasing the risk of cancer over time.
3. Environmental factors
Nowadays, people's working styles have changed a lot. Sitting for long periods of time has become the norm in life. The amount of daily activities and physical labor is very little. This causes constipation over time and makes the colon mucosa continue to be exposed to harmful substances in feces, thereby increasing the chance of cancer.
What are the symptoms of colon cancer?1. Feel a mass in the abdomen
Most abdominal masses are caused by digestive tract diseases. They are soft in texture and can be pushed by hand. As the digestive diseases improve, the masses will disappear. If the abdominal mass is hard and difficult to push by hand, and the mass is progressively enlarging, an early colonoscopy is required to confirm the diagnosis.
2. Abnormal defecation
Changes in the shape of bowel movements are the first symptom in most patients with colon cancer, mainly characterized by thinning of the stool. Colon cancer occurs in the intestinal mucosa and submucosal early stage. As the condition gradually worsens, the tumor slowly bulges toward the intestinal lumen, making the diameter of the intestinal tube smaller, and the feces is squeezed during discharge, resulting in thinner feces. In addition to thinning of the stool, it is often accompanied by blood and mucus in the stool, especially in right colon cancer, where blood is mixed with the stool. When blood or mucus occurs in the stool, it cannot be simply considered to be hemorrhoids. It is also necessary to go to the hospital for routine stool examination as soon as possible.
Most patients with colon cancer will experience varying degrees of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal discomfort, bloating, and indigestion, often intermittently. However, this symptom is mistaken for chronic enteritis or appendicitis. For safety reasons, it is necessary to go to the hospital for relevant examinations as soon as possible to avoid missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.
4. Intestinal obstruction
Colon cancer usually occurs at the junction of the colon and the rectum. As the tumor gradually grows, the colon will be deformed or blocked, causing intestinal obstruction. The main manifestations are abnormal defecation and exhaust, or even the inability to defecate and exhaust.
5. Changes in bowel habits
Everyone's physical fitness, diet and living habits are different, and their bowel habits are also very different. As long as you don't have any physical discomfort, there is no need to worry whether you have bowel movements several times a day or once every few days. If your recent bowel habits are abnormal, the interval between two bowel movements is too long or too short, constipation and diarrhea occur alternately, and this symptom lasts for more than 3 months, you need to pay close attention to it.
Not 100% of the cases with the above symptoms are colon cancer. Further imaging examinations and laboratory tests are required in the hospital to confirm the diagnosis. Precautions should be taken in daily life, the diet structure should be adjusted, 25 to 30 grams of dietary fiber should be provided every day, and plenty of boiled water should be consumed to maintain smooth stools. Control your sedentary time and remind yourself to exercise more.
Daily exercise should not be less than 30 to 45 minutes. Starting around the age of 25, a digital rectal examination and routine examination of lesions should be performed every year, and a colonoscopy screening should be performed every 5 years; people at high risk of colon cancer should increase the frequency of examinations.